Sexual Orientation Assignment | Top Universities

56 . FRAZIER ET AL demographic variables, male, ethnic minority students and first-generation college students all had lower GPAs. The relation between sexual orientation and GPA was not significant, and students from 2-year and 4-year schools did not differ in GPAs. Comment The purpose of this study was to understand further the relation between stress and academic performance using data from a large sample of undergraduate stu- dents at several 2- and 4-year schools in a Midwestern state. Below we discuss our key findings in the context of previous research, followed by a discussion of limi tations and future directions Consistent with NCHA data.”- the factor students most often endorsed as affecting their academic per formance was stress,
the importance of mental health
followed by sleep difficulties and mental health issues. However, many students said they experienced stress but that it did not affect their performance, a finding that often appears to be over- looked in previous research. With regard to the accur- acy of these perceptions, students who reported that stress was affecting their performance did have lower GPAs than other students, with small to moderate effect sizes. However, students who said their stress did not affect their performance had the highest GPAs, higher than those who reported no stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare students’ perceptions of the effects of stress on their academic performance to their actual GPAs. In our data, the bivariate correlation between a measure of perceived stress and GPA was small and negative, similar to but lower than the relation in a recent meta-analysis. However, the pattern of results just described suggests that the relation may not be linear. Analyses that included quadratic effects sug- gested that, at lower levels of stress, stress was posi tively related to performance whereas, at higher levels the relation between stress and GPA became negative This is consistent with the inverted-U theory of stress in which stress is motivating and increases perform- ance up to a certain point and then begins to impair performance. These findings also are consistent with theory and research on stress mindsets, which indi cates that the effects of stress depend on whether stress is perceived as enhancing or debilitating Students who perceive that stress is negatively affect- ing their performance may be more likely to hold a stress-is-debilitating mindset. Comparisons between students who said stress did versus did not affect their academic performance revealed several differences between these groups in terms of psychosocial characteristics for cuample students who said that their academics were negatively affected by stress reported higher levels of stress (con- sistent with the curvilinear relation between stress and GPA), lower coping self-efficacy, lower self-reported resilience, and less social support from family, friends staff, and faculty than students who said that their stress did not affect their performance of students who said they did not have stress Higher levels of stress among students who said their performance was negatively affected by stress is consistent with research showing that students who said that depression nega tively affected their performance reported more depressive symptoms than other students. However, the between-group differences in the other variables ic. coping self-efficacy. resilience, social support) remained significant in multivariate models that included perceived stress. In other words, students who were more affected by stress not only had more stress but also perceived themselves as having fewer intrapersonal and interpersonal resources to manage stress, consistent with other research Social support was positively associated with GPA, consistent with meta-analytic findings as were both coping self-eff cacy and self-reported resilience. The relation between coping self-efficacy and GPA was not significant in one prior study and research on the relations between resilience and GPA has been mixed. S.16 These relations between all of the psychosocial varia- bles and GPA were small and reached significance in our study owing to our large sample size. with regard to demographic characteristics, we focus here on differences that replicated across the bivariate and multivariate analyses. Gender differences had the largest effect size with men less likely to report that they had experienced stress, consistent with NCHA data >
the importance of mental health
Male students were the only group for whom the model response in the bivariate analyses was that they did not have stress, consistent with gender differences in stress appraisal. In con trast, sexual minority students were the only group for whom the modal response was having stress that negatively affected their performance, consistent with other research indicating perceived negative effects of stress among sexual minority students Controlling for other factors, the only demographic variable that distinguished between students who said stress did versus did not affect their performance was that stu dents at 4-year schools had greater odds of being in the group who said that stress affected their perform- ance. However, they were not more likely to report JOURNAL OF AMERICAN COLLEGE HEALTH stress. In general, these results were inconsistent with research suggesting that students from 2-year commu- nity colleges have more mental health problems. Ethnic group differences (showing that ethnic minor ity students had less stress) did not replicate in multi variate analyses once all factors were controlled. Finally, there were no differences in perceptions of Prospective, longitudinal studies that can assess the direction of these relations and more complex theoret ical models is an important next step. Another limita tion is the use of one item measures of some key constructs, such as stress and coping self-efficacy Future research should employ multi-item measures that might better assess these constructs. Finally, there t ively affected performance, consistent with a stress-is- enhancing mindset. This seems important to include given the curvilinear relations between stress and per- formance found in this study of whether or not students were first generation col lege students, consistent with another study that found no relation between fingeneration status and stress It is important to note, however, that the demo graphic factors had different relations with GPA than with perceptions of stress as an impediment to per formance. That is the factors associated with report ing that stress was negatively affecting academic performance were not associated with GPA and vice versa. For example, although women were more likely to say that stress negatively affected their grades, they had higher GPAs than men. Similarly, sexual minor ity students and students at 4 year colleges were more likely to say that stress negatively affected their per formance but did not have lower GPA Finally, first generation college students and ethnic minority stu Conclusion Stress is the factor students are most likely to say negatively affects their academic performance Students who say stress negatively affects their per formance do have lower cumulative GPAs but there also appears to be a curvilinear relation between stress and GPA such that lower levels of stress are positively related to GPA and higher levels are negatively related t o GPA. Students who say that stress is negatively affecting their performance also report more stress, less effective coping less resilience in the face of stress report that stress negatively affected their perform ance. This suggests that it is important not to overin- terpret data suggesting that certain groups believe that stress is negatively affecting their performance because they may actually be doing as well. or better aca- demically than other students. These students may benefit from interventions to change their stress mindsets. self-efficacy, resilience, and social support also are related to higher GPAs, thus, intervening to improve self-efficacy, resilience, and social support may reduce the perception that stress is affecting performance and improve performance. On the other hand, demo graphic characteristics tend to have different relations with perceptions of the effects of stress on perform ance and actual performance in the form of cumula- tive GPAs. Thus, it is important to assess both relations before concluding that certain groups (eg. women, sexual minorities) are at higher risk of poorer performance conflict of interest disclosure No potential conflict of interest was reported the authors by Limitations The conclusions that can be drawn from this research are affected by various limitations of the data and research design. One of the primary limitations is the use of a cumulative measure of GPA. Although this is a common practice, use of a cumulative measure may limit the relation between stress and GPA because, for example, higher levels of recent stress may not have much impact on GPA accumulated over several semesters. The cross-sectional design of our study also precludes drawing any conclusions about the direction of the relation between stress, other psychosocial fac- tors, and GPA. This is important because poor aca demic performance can create stress and low coping self-efficacy, for example, and stress and low coping self-efficacy can create poor academic performance. References Fact Sheet Focusing Higher Education on Student Success US Department of Education. Available at: https://www.ed.govinewpress releasesfact-sheet focusing higher education student success Published July 27, 2015. Accessed November 2017 2. Publications and Reports American College Health Association National College Health Assessment Available at http://www.acha charge pubs rpis. html. Published 2014 Accred November , 2017. Get  Nursing Assignments  Help Today
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