Nursing Assignment | Top Universities

2. Read this information about SARS-CoV-2 (Cavid-19) and answer the questions that follow. Corona Viruses (CoV)s “are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a crown-like appearance under an electron microscope (corona is the Latin term for crown) due to the presence of spikerlycoprotein on the envelope. The subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the Coronaviridae family (order Nidovirales) classifies into four genera of CoVs: Alphacoronavirus (alphaCoV), Betacoronavirus (betaCoV). Deltacoronavirus (deltaCoV), and Gammacoronavirus (gammaCov]. Furthermore, the betaCoV genus divides into five sub genera or lineages. [2] Genomic characterization has shown that probably bats and rodents are the gene sources of alphaCoVs and betaCoVs. On the contrary, avian species seem to represent the gene sources of deltaCoVs and gammaCoVs.” 1 “Thus, SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the betaCoVs category. It has round or elliptic and often pleomorphic form, and a diameter of approximately 60-140 nm. Like other Covs, it is sensitive to ultraviolet rays and heat. Furthermore, these viruses can be effectively inactivated by lipid solvents including ether (75%). ethanol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, peroxyacetic acid and chloroform except for chlorhexidine.” “The trimeric SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) surface spike (5) glycoprotein consisting of three 51-52 heterodimers binds the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and mediates fusion of the viral and cellular membranes through a pre-to postfusion conformation transition.” “Coronaviruses are a family of large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that cause upper respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous system diseases in humans and other animalsthe importance of mental health [1]. Human coronaviruses… circulate in humans and cause mild respiratory diseases 2). However, the outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012 showed that coronaviruses can cross the species barrier and emerge as highly pathogenic viruses [3. The high fatality rate and wide spread of these new emerging coronaviruses indicate that they are a severe threat to global health. The spike (5) glycoprotein of the coronavirus is a class I viral fusion protein located on the outer envelope of the virion that plays a critical role in viral infection by recognizing host cell receptors and mediating fusion of the viral and cellular membranes 14). The coronavirus S glycoprotein is synthesized as a precursor protein consisting of -1,300 amino acids that is then cleaved into an amino (N) terminal S1 subunit (-700 amino acids) and a carboxyl (C) terminal 2 subunit 600 amino acids). Three S1/S2 heterodimers assemble to form a trimer spike protruding from the viral envelope. The S1 subunit contains a receptor binding domain (RD), while the S2 subunit contains a hydrophobic fusion peptide and two heptad repeat regions.” Cascella M Hank M, Como A et al Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID 191 Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: States internet Treasure Island ( State Publishing 200 lan. Avb rom httpswww.ncbinlm.nihgov/ b s/NBKS54716 Page 14 SARS-CoV 2 Structure Spke (1 882) Nucleocapsid (NO Membrane (M) Envelope the importance of mental health(E) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 Receptor SARNA (+ sense –30kb in length) Binding Domain Figure 1. SARS-CoV-2 structure Figure 2. Pictures of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike glycoprotein in two conformations. Page 15 814 words Type here to search Answer the following questions about the SARS-CoV-2 virus. a. The spikes on the outside of the virus are made up of glycoproteins. What are glycoproteins? b. The virus can be inactivated in multiple ways. Choose three and explain how each of them act on the virus to inactivate it. (Think about how these things would denature a protein.) c. The corona virus’s spike is made up of 5-glycoprotein that is cleaved (split) into 51 and 52 proteins. What does it mean when the reading says that 51 is the N-terminal subunit and S2 is the C-terminal subunit? (you can draw a diagram to answer) Page 16 d. Talk about the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of the spike protein. Draw arrows to point to the secondary structures in Figure 2 and name them. e. The 52 unit binds to the lipid membrane and contains a “hydrophobic fusion peptide”. Explain why the binding of S2 to the membrane requires hydrophobic amino acids and draw (not cut and paste) 3 examples of hydrophobic amino acids you might find in this region of the protein Page 17 Get  Nursing Assignments  Help Today
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